Vaccination

Vaccination

Vaccination involves the deliberate immunization of healthy people with a pathogen antigen or its subcomponents. This results in the stimulation of the immunological memory process. This process is induced by CD4-T cell dependent antigens which then produce either short or long-lived dormant clones of T (+B) lymphocytes. These rapidly expand after re-encounter with the antigens, stimulating specific B cells to proliferate to plasma cells, stimulating specific cytotoxic T cell lymphocytes.

There are 4 different types of immune response upon vaccination:

1. T cell independent-1 (TI-1 antigens) APC stimulate the proliferation of immature or mature B cells; increase plasma cells; stimulation of antibody production

2. T cell independent-2

(TI-2 antigens) APC stimulate the active mature B cells; increase plasma cells; stimulation of antibody production

3. TH1 cell dependent (TH1) APC stimulate the cross-linking TH1 cell with macrophage activation; increase plasma cells; stimulation of antibody production and memory

4. TH2 cell dependent (TH2) APC stimulate the cross-linking TH2 cell; stimulating B cell activation only; increase plasma cells; stimulation of antibody and memory

For further information: vaccines

1

No antibodies are produced after the initial exposure to the toxoid present in the vaccine.

2

All immunological responses to vaccines begin with:

3

Which of the following vaccinations are usually recommended, on a yearly basis, for elderly patients with chronic respiratory conditions? I. Influenza virus; II. Pneumococcus; III. Meningococcus.